(2) For contacts made from a projection printer, dodging can be
accomplished by placing a translucent medium between the light source and
the negative. Material, such as tissue paper, can be torn in the
approximate shape and size of the thin area of the negative. During the
exposure, the material must be kept in constant motion or welldefined areas
in the shape of dodging material will be apparent in the print. The
increased density in this portion of the diffuser reduces the light in that
d. Do not attempt to change the overall contrast by excessive dodging.
Overall print contrast should be altered by changing the contrast filter.
You should now be familiar with the methods and procedures used in contact
printing. If there is any area you are not sure of, go over it again. If
you feel confident in your knowledge of the material, go on to Learning
Learning Event 2:
DESCRIBE PROJECTION PRINTING
in that the negative is separated from the photo paper the image on the
negative is projected by means of incandescent light through a lens onto the
photo paper. By changing the lens to paper distance it is possible to
reduce, maintain, or enlarge the image.
a. If the machine can make reductions (images smaller than the
negative) as well as enlargements then, technically, it is called a
"projection printer". If the machine only makes enlargements from the
negative then it is called an "enlarger". Because most projection prints
are made at an enlarged scale, it has become common to refer to projection
prints as "enlargements" and to call a projection printer an "enlarger".
b. Skill in projection printing is very important to the photographic
specialist. As you will discover, projection printing offers many
is that the size of the prints can be regulated regardless of the size of
the negative. Other advantages are the ability to improve perspective, the
ease of dodging and burning in, and the many and varied special effects that
can be employed.
2. Manually operated projection printers. In general, all projection
printers are similar in their basic design and operation. They consist of
an enclosed light source, a negative carrier, a lens, a means of adjusting
lenstonegative and lenstopaper (also called lenstoeasel) distances,
and an easel for holding the photo paper.