d. Sepia prints on semimatte and matte surfaces are spotted with
crayon pencils or spotting colors in varying shades of brown. The spotting
procedure is the same as for black and white prints. Toned prints in colors
other than sepia may be spotted with appropriately colored crayon pencils.
2. Print toning. Photographic print toning is a process for changing the
color of the black and white print image. The tone of normal black and
white prints ranges from cold black (bluish) to warm black (brown or olive),
depending on the emulsion, the developer composition, and the use of the
developer. By chemical treatment, we can change the color of these black
and white images.
a. Chemical toning. Generally speaking, chemical toning processes are
divided into two classes, direct and indirect. A direct toning process is
one in which the color is changed by treatment in a single solution that
either dyes the image or converts it to a different compound. With an
indirect toning process, the metallic silver image is first converted by a
bleaching solution to silver ferrocyanide and then redeveloped in a second
solution to obtain the desired tone or color. Although either chloride or
bromide emulsions can be toned satisfactorily, chlorobromide emulsions are
generally the best for chemical toning.
(1) Because blue tones produce an impression of coolness, they are
frequently used for winter scenes, boating scenes, or scenes having a
natural predominance of blue. A brown sepia toner is suitable for
portraits, building interiors, autumn landscapes, some types of
architectural subjects, or scenes having a natural predominance of brown.
Excellent effects can be obtained by toning the prints to match, as nearly
as possible, the predominant coloring of the original subject.
(2) Prints that are to be sepiatoned should be exposed and developed
to produce a slightly greater overall density than is normally desired in a
conventional black and white print. Their images are bleached, then
redeveloped, but redevelopment is not as great as the first development and
images appear lighter and less contrasty. On the other hand, because a blue
toning process produces some intensification resulting in an increase in
density, a print intended for blue toning should be a little less dense and
softer in contrast than is normally desired in a black and white print.
b. A print intended for toning must be given an exposure such that the
proper density of the image is obtained by full development as recommended
by the manufacturer. It must be neither underdeveloped or overdeveloped.
Unless development is correct, the tone of the final print will not be
acceptable. For some toning processes, fixing and washing must also be