(c) Line up on the dial the flash-to-subject distance with the camera f/stop.
(d) Note the power setting that the dial indicates (i.e., full power, 1/2 power, 1/4 power).
(2) If flash does not have adjustable power settings:
(a) Follow steps under paragraph a above.
(b) Set film speed on flash calculator dial.
(c) Locate the f/stop (from step 5 above) on the flash calculator dial and find the distance
that is opposite it.
(d) Position the flash that distance from the subject.
Portrait lighting has been divided into various types called lightings. Six of the most frequently used
Broad lighting - the main light completely illuminates the side of the face turned toward the
Short lighting - the main light completely illuminates the side of the face turned away from
Butterfly lighting - the main light is placed directly in front of the face and casts a shadow
directly under the nose.
Rembrandt lighting (can also be referred to as 45 lighting) - the main light is placed high and
to the side of the face turned away from the camera. This is a combination of short and
Split lighting - the main light is placed to completely light one side of the face while placing
the other side of the face in shadow.
Rim lighting - the main light is placed toward the back of the subject and places the entire
face in shadow.
These names have been given because of the visual effects the lighting creates when it falls on the
subject from a given direction. This visual effect is derived primarily from the main light source. Other
light sources are added to the main light as needed to enhance the subject. Figures 1-7 through 1-12
provide an illustration of each of the six portrait lightings.