(b) When making a portrait of a person smiling, the nose shadow must be shortened
because the upper lip draws up and the shadow goes over the lip. The nose shadow should not be
allowed to extend over or even touch the edge of the lip. When it does the lip form is destroyed and it
appears unnaturally small.
The main light to subject distance is again determined using the forehead highlight test.
(2) Placing the fill light. The front lighting fill light is positioned directly below the main
light; close to the camera lens axis, and slightly above subject eye level. The intensity of this light
should be about one f/stop less than the main light. The main to fill light ratio is established by moving
the fill light closer to or farther away from the subject to increase or decrease its effect on the subject.
Balance can also be controlled by using diffusion screens over the fill-in light.
If the main light is putting enough light on the hair, the hair light might be dispensed with. However, if
you decide a hair light is necessary to enhance the subject or complete the tonal balance, the light is used
as in our other portrait lightings. That is, high and from the back.
The background light in a front lighting again serves to separate the subject from the background and to
control the color or tone reproduction of the background.
d. Back Lighting. Back lighting is often used when making portraits in profile. Once the back
lighting has been set, it does not permit subject movement. However, the camera position can be
changed to achieve a somewhat off-profile portrait.
(1) Main light location. The main light comes from the back and should be as far into the set
as possible and from the side toward which the subject is turned without the light stand showing in the
picture. For back lighting, a small spotlight is generally preferable to a floodlight. The lighting should
be started at about subject eye level and produce a rim of light around the profile. The light can be
raised or lowered to give the best effect. The backlight should be shielded to prevent it from spilling
into the camera lens.
(2) Fill light location. The fill light is located about halfway between the main
light and camera. If the fill light were placed at or very near the lens axis, objectionable