2-24. REPRODUCTION RATIO.
When copying an object, the size of the reproduction compared with the
original, depends on the focal length of the lens and the distand between the
original and the camera. The greater the focal length, the larger the copy.
A 400mm lens produces copy twice the size of copy.
made with a
200mm lens, if the original is the same distance from the lens. The farther an
object is from the camera, the smaller the copy.
However, in this case, the
size is not directly proportional (inversely) to the distance. An 11x14-inch
original copied so that the long side becomes 7 inches undergoes a linear
reduction of one-half (14 = 2 ). The number obtained by dividing any length in
the original by its length in the copy is the
reduction figure (ratio).
b. When speaking of reduction of size in copying, linear reduction is
always meant unless the contrary is stated. Reproduction ratio is defined as
any linear distance on the image divided by the corresponding distance on the
Reproduction ratio refers to either reduction or enlargement,
whichever is applicable at the time. The following formula is used:
c. Scale is the measurement of a reproduction as compared to the
corresponding measurement of the original. A scale of 1:1 means the scale of
reproduction is equal to the scale of the original. A scale of 1:2 means that
the reproduction is one-half the size of the original.
A scale of 2:1 means
that the reproduction is two times the size of the original.
2-25. CAMERA BELLOWS EXTENSION. Normally, a camera lens can be focused from 6
feet to infinity and retain its f/number value.
At close lens-to-subject
distances, however, the distance between the lens and focal plane becomes so
great that the film does not receive the amount of light indicated by the
marked f/number. When the camera is moved to a point closer than ten times the
focal length from the subject, compensation must be made for light lost due to
the bellows extension.
This compensation is made by application of a