will now have two additional f/stops or two faster shutter speeds available
above the original at ISO 400.
(b) Remember to expose for the shadow detail when pushing film
because it is the first thing affected by this technique.
(3) You can not forget the second half of the "pushing" technique,
overdeveloping. By overdeveloping, you compensate for the lack of exposure.
(a) As film is developed, the highlights develop first, then the
In effect, the more silver there is to act on, the more
development takes place. There is an increase in shadow density as long as
the exposure does not fall below the threshold of the film's characteristic
(b) There are several developers on the market which give good
results when push processing. A few of these are Acufine, D-76, and Ultra-
Fine Grain (UFG).
Acufine and UFG are compensating developers.
effectively increase a films tonal range while controlling contrast.
(c) Kodak's T-Max films and developers are especially effective in
low light pushing situations at keeping grayness to a minimum.
film should be done as a last resort since it causes a loss of shadow detail
and grain can be increased.
15. Lens Choice.
Many photographers use a variety of focal length lens for convenience or for
You, as a photojournalist, must be aware of the apparent
distortions and perspective changes different lens produce, and how they
influence your message.
The classification of a lens (normal, wide, and long) is related to the
diagonal of the image format with which it is being used.
If the focal
length of a lens is equal to the diagonal of the image format, it is a
normal angle lens. If it is less, it is a wide angle, and if it is more,
then it is a long or telephoto. The foldout of figure 1-9 illustrates the
three different lenses field of view of the same subject shot from the same
distance. The top photo used a normal angle 50mm lens. The middle photo
used a wide angle 28mm lens. The bottom photo used a narrow (long) angle
a. Normal Lens.
The normal angle lens covers a field of view of
approximately 50 degrees, about what the human eye encompasses.