a. Horizontal or Lateral Swing.
Both the front and rear standards
(1) Using the swing back.
The swing back is used to correct
subjects from an angle, the horizontal lines have the appearance of
excessive convergence. To correct this distortion, the camera back is swung
to a position more nearly parallel to the horizontal plane of the subject.
(2) Using the swing front. The front standards swing allows the lens
to be pivoted horizontally around its optical axis. The swing front is used
When the swing back is off center, the film is not in the same
plane as the image produced by the lens.
Thus by swinging the lens, the
image can be brought onto the same plane as the film.
The front and rear standards tilt forward and backward.
(1) Using the tilt back. The tilt back is used to correct distortion
Tilting the camera up results in
convergence of vertical lines of the subject image on the ground glass.
This is quite apparent when photographing a tall building. If no correction
is used, the building looks smaller at the top (bottom of the ground glass).
To correct this distortion, the tilt back is tilted so that it is more
parallel to the vertical plane of the subject.
(2) Using the tilt front.
The tilt front is used to focus and
When the tilt
back is tilted away from the center, the film plane is not parallel to the
image produced by the lens.
Thus by tilting the lens, the image can be
brought into the same plane as the film.
The front and rear standards shift from side to side.
(1) Shifting front standards. The shifting front standard is used to
center the image on the ground glass when the subject is not directly in
front of the lens. If after setting the camera up on a tripod the subject
image is not centered on the film plane, use the shift front to center the
image instead of moving the tripod.
(2) Shifting rear standards. If enough correction is not obtained by
shifting the front standard alone, it is