activated, be stabilized, and completely emerge from an Ektamatic Processor. Stabilization processing is not
recommended for resin-coated papers.
a. The unexposed, undeveloped silver-halide salts left in a print emulsion after development would turn
dark in a few minutes if exposed to light. When stabilized, they turn dark very slowly; often the first signs of
image deterioration show up only after months. Strong light, high temperature, and high humidity all help to
shorten the life of a stabilized print.
b. A stabilized print can be fixed, washed, and dried in the conventional manner to obtain optimum
Learning Event 3:
DESCRIBE THE ACTIVATION - CONVENTIONAL PROCESS
A combination of fast black-and-white print processing and optimum stability is achieved with the Kodak
Royalprint Processor, Model 417. The purpose of this section is to describe how the automatic processor works
and to relate the process to previously available print processing methods.
This processor works by an activation-conventional process that produces dry prints with optimum
stability in less than a minute. Until the advent of this new process, there had been two major methods of
processing prints: conventional process and the activation-stabilization process. Each method has advantages and
This new activation-conventional process makes use of the best features of conventional processing,
stabilization processing, water-resistant paper base, developer-incorporated emulsions, and specially designed
equipment. Other important features make possible prints of optimum stability in a complete process time of less
than a minute.
Activation: The diagram of the Royalprint Processor illustrates this activation process and shows how its
many advantages are realized (fig 3-6).
a. The exposed print is placed emulsion-side-down on the feeder tray, where it enters the processor.
The first pair of rollers are dry rollers in contact, and serve to transport the print down into the activator
solution. The highly alkaline activator enters the emulsion, combines with the developer-incorporated particles,
dissolves them rapidly, and develops the image in slightly less than 9 seconds. The activator does not require an
elevated temperature--it operates in the range of 18 to 24C (65 59 75F) with a tolerance of 3C (5F) about
any temperature in the range. The activator is kept within the range by incoming tap water on its way to the
wash section of the processor.
b. However, because tap water often exceeds this range, a thermostically-controlled mixing valve is
furnished. The print leaves the activator via the last pair of transport rollers in the activator section. These
rollers are in contact and act as squeegees, removing excess activator from the print.