(3) Slides. Slides prepared for television are either in a
positive or negative form. When used in the positive form, a slide
functions the same as a studio card; however, the narrators cannot point
to or touch the slide because they would interfere with the projection
of the slide. When presented in the negative form, the director can
superimpose the slide image over a live scene and present the live scene
and the slide image as one image.
(4) Phantoms. The fundamental principle for this type of
television graphic is color values. When you design and prepare this
type of television graphic, draw the image on a medium gray background
using a colored media, usually pencil. The color used to draw the image
must have the same value on the gray scale as the background material.
Usually you find the phantom and the narrator shown at the same time;
therefore, the phantom is usually large, 15 by 20 inches or larger as
the situation dictates.
Because the image and the background have the same gray scale, a
television camera will not show the image, but the image is visible to
the narrator. Therefore, when the narrator uses a grease pencil or felt
tipped pen of a different gray scale value than the background to trace
the image, it appears to the camera that they are creating the image on
the background, when in fact they are just tracing the fully developed
For example, television uses this effect to develop complicated graphics
or drawings or to present mathematical problems without errors. Another
reason television uses this type of graphic is as a slowdown device
(i.e., develop a graphic in steps that would otherwise be as a finished
form). A slowdown allows the narrator to present information at a rate
the viewer can easily comprehend and absorb.
(5) Animation. Animation is a special presentation technique used
to create and hold the viewer's interest. Because moving objects
attract, hold, and lead the eye, movement or animation is very effective
as an aid to learning. Full animation techniques are complex, require a
large amount of time to develop, and are expensive.
Animations created for television require 30 frames or pictures for
every second of the presentation. Since animations are expensive to
produce at a frame rate higher than 30, the excepted standard of
animation for television is a limited form of animation with jerky
motions and abrupt movements.