The drawing is now correct in form, proportion, and contour. It also has many
corrections and smudges. Rather than start over, trace the good portions and transfer the
contours to another sheet of paper. This will save much time and aggravation, and the drawing
will look much more professional.
Learning Event 5:
The last step of the systematic approach is shading. Shading is the pattern of light and
dark found on a form. This shading step does the most to create and emphasize the illusion of
depth in your illustrations. Shading has two qualities, value and contrast (fig 2-19).
a. Value is the artist's word for lightness and darkness. Learn the two types of value:
local value and value patterns.
(1) Local value is the natural lightness or darkness of an object, irrespective of the
lighting situation. For example, a white shirt and black trousers have different local value.
Additionally, each has its own value patterns.
(2) Value patterns are the shape variations in the natural lightness or darkness of an
object because of reflected light. For instance, a cube has three visible sides. If all visible sides
reflect the same amount of light, it looks like a flat hexagon. However, the more direct a side is
to the light source, the lighter that side looks. The farther away it is, the darker it looks. The
tone variations on hard-edged, rectilinear forms have distinctive shapes or value patterns and are
simpler to recognize and draw. Value patterns on curvilinear forms such as a tree, an animal, or
clothing folds are much more gradual and tonal change is much more complex. An intense light
source increases contrast in value patterns. Natural light (the sun) and artificial light (bulb or
fluorescent) make the subject appear different (fig 2-19).
(3) Some edges are definite, others indicate a gradual value change. The value
patterns on some subjects may at first seem impossible to duplicate, but through practice, they
will become "old hat."
b. Contrast is the degree of difference in lightness or darkness between one value and
another. Most beginning artists don't emphasize contrast enough in their drawings. Too little
contrast will make the illustration appear flat. Illustrations,