Application can be with a standard brush with its hairs spread out, or with a fan brush.
Tone media techniques. Tone media can be dry or liquid and must be capable of
producing black, white, and shades of gray (including color media)(fig 3-4). The following
discusses techniques for using tone media.
a. Dry media techniques - Dry media (pencil, charcoal, pastels, and chalk) involve
directly applying the pigment to a surface. Application can be with either the end (tip) or broad
side (edge), depending on the medium used. Control the value by the amount of applied
pressure (fig 3-11). Adjoining values are feathered or blended to create a graduated tone. Use a
smudging tool to smooth tones. These tools can be a stump, tissue, or cotton swab. Don't use
your fingers to blend media. Fingers contain body oils that may smudge the drawings. Use a
kneaded eraser to bring out highlights.
b. Wash media techniques - Thin wash media (watercolor, ink, and opaque paints) with
water, then apply to a heavy absorbent paper. Use a round or flat sable brush to apply washes.
The four types of wash are flat wash, graded wash, wet-on-wet, and wet-on-dry. Listed below
are techniques for using washes. An appropriately-sized round brush should be used to float-on
(1) A flat wash has one even value once dry.
(a) First, dilute enough medium to cover the entire area for the wash. Then, wet
the paper with clear water and allow it to be absorbed until there is no visible moisture.
(b) Load the brush with wash. Starting at the top of the paper, use an even,
moderately fast stroke to lay on the wash. Hold the brush nearly flat so most of the hair
touches the paper. Float the wash on. Do not rub it in.
(c) Continue with a slight overlap of the previous stroke. Before the brush loses
all of its tone, quickly dip it into the wash and continue until all the area has wash.
(d) Finally, with a dried brush, stroke the pool that will form at the bottom of the
paper. The brush will soak up some of the excess. Squeeze the brush and repeat as necessary.