c. Cut-ins and cutaways are always required to maintain scene continuity.
In many cases they may not be shot during the filming of a specific sequence.
You will probably have to shoot them after the main action has terminated.
However, you must provide cut-ins and cutaways when filming under any
(1) A cut-in is a technique for maintaining continuity and for bridging
gaps in action. It is usually a closeup or extreme closeup, e.g., a sequence
shows two people meeting and shaking hands in a long or medium shot.
handshake is a closeup "cut-in."
(2) A cut-away directs the camera (audience) from the main action to
show some parallel action that is taking place at the same time. While filming
a troop review, cut away to the crowd watching, or to the reviewing stand for
the expression of the general, then back to the troops marching.
d. Screen direction must be maintained whenever possible. In most cases
on the battlefield, you will not be able to do this. Remember that the cut-in
and cutaway can be used to cover a change in direction. In addition you can
use a prominent object to orient the audience to the movement of the subject,
and film around the subject to show a change in direction.
e. Basic sequence is the most important technique in filming.
picture or television documentation is lost without good basic sequence. The
basic sequence consists of long shots (LS), medium shots (MS), closeups (CU),
extreme long shots (ELS), and extreme closeups (ECU). All these shots, used in
a certain sequence, will make a motion media presentation more understandable
to the audience.
(1) The usual arrangement of a basic sequence is the opening shot which
is a LS or ELS showing the overall local or subject. This is followed by a MS
which narrows down the subject to a specific area or unit. This is followed by
a CU that focuses the audience attention to the specific thought you are trying
to record. After this normally comes a reestablishing shot (RS) that reminds
the audience where they are.
(2) From this point on, the scenes can move from LS, to MS, to CU, back
to MS, and back to CU or ECU.
Remember to reestablish after a few scenes.
This technique may not be possible on the battlefield but you should attempt to
use the basic sequence as much as possible.
(3) The basic sequence can be used when documenting nonbattle subjects
such as captured equipment, medical procedures, camouflage discipline, enemy
f. Exposure remains a critical factor in motion picture documentation.
Unless your film is properly exposed, your efforts could be for nothing. Basic
exposure and the use of light meters do not change on the battlefield.
does change is the surrounding events.
You must understand how to use basic
exposure and use it almost without thinking (fig 1-3).