(b) The lens is dirty.
(c) The negative is overexposed.
(d) The negative (film) is fogged.
(2) If you observe small transparent and irregularly shaped spots on
a negative, they may be caused by dust inside the camera body settling on
(3) Fingermarks are produced by touching the film with your finger.
(4) If you observe black streaks extending into the picture from one
corner, or lying along the side of a negative:
(a) The streaks may be caused by light that is admitted through an
opening in the back of the camera.
(b) The camera may have a light leak.
(c) The streaks may be caused by withdrawing the tab of a film
(d) The film holder may have a light leak.
(5) Small circular transparent spots, or air bells, are produced by
air bubbles collecting on the surface of the film during development. These
can be prevented by tapping the film or hanger after each agitation cycle.
(6) If the negative emulsion has a wrinkled or spider-web like
appearance (reticulation), then the temperature of the solutions varies too
Wide variations in temperature will cause an abrupt or sudden
swelling and contraction of the film. Reticulation occurs when the film is
transferred from one solution to another of higher or lower temperature,
where the temperature difference is greater than 5 degrees Fahrenheit.
(7) Softening of the emulsion of the film edges is called frilling,
and can be caused by:
(a) Warm developer,
(b) Old or incorrectly prepared fixer which doesn't harden the
film satisfactorily, or,
(c) Prolonged washing, using warm water, or handling the film in
extremely warm weather.
(8) If the image shows spots of different density, this may be caused
by uneven drying.