Figure 1-2. Synchronization
3. Close, Deep, and Rear Operations. The AirLand battlefield is identified by three distinct yet
interrelated and independent operations: close, deep, and rear. Together, they comprise a special and
continuous synchronization requirement (Figure 1-3).
a. Close operations.
(1) Close operations any echelon comprise the current activities of major committed combat
elements, together with their immediate combat support and combat service support. At the operational
level, close operations comprise the efforts of large tactical formations, corps and divisions, to win
current battles. At the tactical level, close operations comprise the efforts of smaller tactical units to win