(2) At any echelon, close operations
subordinate elements. Thus, the close operation
of a corps includes the close, deep, and rear
operations of its committed divisions or separate
(3) Not all activities taking place in
proximity to the line of contact are close
For example, some forward
Figure 1-3. Close, deep, and rear operations
surveillance and target acquisition may be
functionally related to deep operations.
Similarly, some engineer activities in the forward area may be related to rear operations. Activities are
part of close operations if they are designed to support the current fight.
(4) Among the activities typically comprising close operations are:
Maneuver (including deep maneuver).
Close combat (including close air support).
Indirect fire support (including counterfire).
Combat support/combat service support of committed units.
Command and control.
(5) Close operations bear the ultimate burden of victory or defeat. The measure of success of
b. Deep operations.
(1) Deep operations at any echelon comprise activities directed against enemy forces not in
contact and are designed to influence the conditions in which future close operations will be conducted.
At the operational level, deep operations include efforts to isolate current battles and to influence where,
when, and against whom future battles will be fought. At the tactical level, deep operations are designed
to shape the battlefield to assure advantage in subsequent engagements. At both levels, successful deep
operations create he conditions for future victory.