(2) Identification operations help to identify the size (personnel
and equipment), type, echelon, and function of enemy units.
information has significance in fire and maneuver plans.
enemy units, the commander can better prepare combat operations.
(3) Location operations help identify likely or possible enemy
The data gathered can show if an enemy is in an offensive,
defensive, or retrograde posture. The location and movement of enemy forces
indicates what the enemy is doing or preparing to do. Gathered information
is also used to plan the targeting of enemy positions.
b. ECM are offensive actions taken to prevent or reduce an enemy's
effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Figure 1-3 shows the
components of ECM.
of his electronic equipment. It can help ESM efforts by forcing the enemy
to send in the clear and for longer periods. ESM personnel can then gather
vital information about the enemy's intentions, location, size, and other
key times causes chaos, disrupts his operations, and reduces his
what his collection systems receive.
It is often conducted as part of a
larger deception operation.
c. ECCM are defensive measures used to protect friendly command,
allow friendly forces the continual use of the electronic spectrum.
components of ECCM are shown in Figure 1-4, page 1-4.
(1) Anti-ESM are actions taken to deny the enemy access to friendly
This is done by avoiding enemy EW
operations. To deny an enemy access to friendly electronic assets, several
actions may be taken.