The major growth in intelligence collection capabilities does not mean a
sophisticated enemy cannot be deceived. In fact, the more collection capabilities an opponent has, the
greater the opportunities to feed specially designed false information.
Deception tools include measures designed to mislead an enemy by manipulating,
distorting, or falsifying evidence to induce it to react in a manner counter to its interests.
In protecting friendly C3 capabilities, battlefield deception can be used to inject
ambiguity into the enemy's decision-making process. That can slow an enemy's ability to respond to the
current situation. Many means are used to do such deception. These include portraying false friendly
intentions, capabilities, and dispositions.
Electronic means of battlefield deception can result in the development of false
target and situational data. This is done by:
Injecting false and misleading information directly into an enemy's
Sending false information over friendly net.
Misleading an enemy on friendly force composition and disposition
through simulated friendly communications.
OPSEC is used to influence enemy decisions. It does this by concealing specific,
operationally significant information from enemy intelligence collection assets and decision processes.
OPSEC acts as the concealment aspect for all deceptions, affecting what is planned and how the plan is
executed. It measures, normally procedural in nature, include:
This consists of active and passive measures taken to
counteract enemy surveillance.
Signal security (SIGSEC). This encompasses both communications security
(COMSEC) and electronic security (ELSEC). COMSEC involves using codes, secure voice and data
equipment, and approved procedures to protect friendly communications. ELSEC uses techniques to
reduce operating time. It also involves properly positioning radar and antennas to protect friendly C3.
Information security. This seeks to prevent disclosing operational information
through written, verbal, or graphic communications.
Physical security. This consists of physical measures designed to: