b. Swish pan. A swish pan is used to show a change in time or a change in
place, between scenes.
A swish pan is a quick pan where everything blurs.
After the swish pan, cut directly to the next scene. Or cut to a quick pan,
stopping directly on the new subject. Its success depends on the right speed
and smooth movement.
c. Defocus/refocus. Defocus the lens. The image becomes blurred. Start
next scene out of focus.
Go into focus.
This implies a change of time or
d. Black surface.
Using a black surface or uniformly colored surface,
zoom in and then cut. Zoom in to a blue wall, cut to the next scene. Again
start on the blue wall.