(2) Graded wash has a gradually changing Value from light to dark within its area.
Follow the same procedure as for flat wash but dip the brush into clear water instead of the
wash. Do this every stroke or two. This will dilute the wash and graduate it from dark to light.
To go from light to dark do the opposite. Start with the clear water and add a little tone after
(3) Wet-on-wet is applying a toned wash to an already wet value area. While the area
is still wet, apply another toned wash to the area. This second wash will bleed into the first
creating a soft irregular edge.
(4) Wet-on-dry is laying a wash on the watercolor paper and then allowing it to dry.
Apply a second wash over the first after it is dry. This technique will allow build-up of the
tone's value and create sharper edges between different tones or values. For a very sharp edge,
lay masking tape or a masking medium over the area not receiving the wash. Once all is dry,
pick up the tape or masking medium, and the protected area without wash remains the same
c. Opaque media techniques - Opaque media are those paints, discussed previously,
which you cannot see through. They include tempera, gouache, and acrylic. Opaque paints are
heavy, stiff, and difficult to blend. It is easy, however, to get a flat area of uniform value. Take
the medium directly from the tube and mix it to the proper consistency and shade. Paint over
mistakes by simply letting the paint dry, then repainting with the correct tone or another value.
(1) Consistency - Mix the water-based opaque paint with a little water to get the
consistency of heavy cream. Don't add too much water or the paint will be runny and no longer
transparent. If you don't add enough water, however, the paint will be stiff and difficult to use.
(2) Mixing - Opaque paints come in black and white, and color. They also come in
shades of premixed grays, often called retouch grays. Although it is more convenient to use the
retouch grays, you may want to mix your own. First mix black and white paint to get a middle
gray. Next mix this middle gray with white to get light gray and with black to get dark gray.
Continue to mix adjacent values until the desired number of grays are reached.
(3) Blending - To achieve an appearance of a graded tone, paint narrow bands of
closely related values side by side.