conventional processing of resin-coated papers requires a shorter time.
a. Because the fixer solution, with its dissolved silver salt content, does not penetrate the paper base, the
wash time is shortened considerably--to 4 minutes. The developing and stop bath times are essentially the same
as for conventional papers. The fixing time, however, is reduced from 10 minutes to 2 minutes.
b. The big saving in processing time for water-resistant papers occurs in the washing step. Instead of
the minimum of an hour wash for conventional papers, a 4-minute wash time is recommended, in which time
prints attain optimum stability. Further, prints made on water-resistant papers air-dry much faster than prints
made on conventional papers.
Learning Event 2:
DESCRIBE THE STABILIZATION PROCESS
Some users require more rapid access to prints than can be achieved by the conventional process--even
with water-resistant papers--and they have no need for permanence in the usual sense. For these users, the
activation stabilization process is recommended. The Kodak Ektamatic Processor, Model 214-K, provides such a
a. In the conventional process, all the developing ingredients are in the developer and are carried into
the emulsion by the solvent which is water.
b. In the stabilization process, the components of the developer are divided between the paper emulsion
and the activator solution. The papers used in the stabilization process are developer-incorporated papers. The
developing agents are in the paper emulsion, and the remainder of the necessary ingredients are in the activator
Activation: While an activator could be at the same level of alkalinity as a developer solution, the
activators actually used in the stabilization process have a much higher alkalinity to make the development more
rapid. If a normal developer had as high an alkalinity as a typical activator, it would be caustic to hands. Also, a
developer of very high alkalinity would oxidize the developing agents very rapidly--and would have a very short
useful life. When the developing agents are in the paper, the activator can be highly alkaline and still have a long
In the Ektamatic Processor, development is completed in a few seconds by activator brought to the print
surface by the roller mechanism. The paper does not enter the activator solution. The second, and last, step of
this process is stabilization.
Stabilization: Stabilization is the chemical conversion of light-sensitive salts to other silver salts that are
much less light sensitive. Such a print can be used as a proof print, as an original for graphic reproduction, or for
any other purpose not requiring long-term permanence. Prints come from the processor immediately in a damp-
dry condition and air-dry in several minutes. It takes only about 15 seconds for an 8- by 10-inch print to enter, be