frame by frame jogging at 10 times the recording speed while producing
recognizable images. Rewind speeds can reach up to 40 times the recording
A freeze frame effect can be obtained by momentarily stopping the
Do not keep the recorder too long in this zero tape speed mode
because it wears away the magnetic coating on the tape quickly.
g. Even the large video cassette recorders are small enough for one
person to carry, if need be.
However, portable VRs are designed
specifically for ENG work. This implies they must be lightweight, rugged,
easy to carry and operate, and reliable. This is no small order, but there
h. Some of the portable VRs run on battery or AC power. The battery
has a lifetime of about 4 hours and if you hook up the camera to the same
battery, the lifetime is shorter, or about 1.5 hours. For AC operations the
operator would use an AC/DC converter. In this case there is no limit to
the operating time, but you are always tied to an AC cord.
The camera. The most obvious production element, the camera, comes in
all sizes and configurations.
Some cameras can be easily carried and
operated by one person, while others are so large and heavy they must be
placed on special camera mounts. The studio camera is one such unit needing
the camera mount. The camera mount enables the camera operator to move the
camera throughout the studio with relative ease. The camera we are going to
discuss is the portable camera and it is often used in ENG/EFP.
a. All important productions are done with color cameras. Monochrome
or black and white cameras are used for inexpensive taping, training,
surveillance, and a variety of industrial applications.
b. The TV camera has three major parts, the lens, the viewfinder, and
the body itself with its electronic components.
The ENG/EFP cameras are
portable, which means they are usually carried by the camera operator rather
than put on a camera mount.
They are largely self-contained and can be
operated without additional camera control equipment.
In news gathering,
the ENG camera has replaced the film camera. When using an ENG camera, you
either record your scene on a portable VR or send your signals via microwave
link to the station or directly to the transmitter for live telecast. The
VR can be played back immediately; unlike film, it does not need to go to
the lab for processing.
In EFP situations, the portable camera can be
easily carried into locations that can accommodate larger cameras only with
c. The ENG/EFP cameras are automated as much as possible.
shooting a news story, you do not have to perform intricate camera setup
Nor do you have time to do many camera adjustments while
Fortunately, most ENG/EFP cameras are fully operational within
just a few seconds after switching them on, and you can make the adjustments
to extreme production situations quickly and easily.