His drawing did not look the way he intended. It was a symbol, a simplified version of the
subject he chose to draw. This is a logical way for anyone to start drawing. Unfortunately,
symbols don't show what the world really looks like. Using the principles of drawing, you will
learn to draw realistically, and the importance of avoiding symbols.
(2) Symbols interfere with your progress through drawing. They tell your mind that a
subject looks a certain way in spite of how it really looks. These symbolic drawings take away
the subjects' subtleties that make them appear real. These subtleties could be a line quality, tone,
form, or a texture. Self-analysis will help you to avoid drawing symbols.
b. Seeing abstractly is viewing a subject as a series of unrecognizable shapes, and it can
help you to avoid symbols. For example, if you turn a photo upside down to copy it that way,
you will see the image differently. From this point of view, you will avoid symbols. You can be
quickly on your way to visual accuracy. You should practice this as an exercise.
The second principle of drawing is a systematic approach to drawing. The systematic
approach consists of four steps: determining the subjects' forms, determining their proportions,
representing them with contours, and shading them to emphasize the illusion of depth.
Following this four-step formula of form, proportion, contour, and shading will help you to draw
any and everything. Separate learning events explain each step in depth. You must understand
and do each step correctly and in sequence to achieve visual accuracy.
a. You can use the systematic approach not only as a method for drawing but also as a
method of analysis. You can determine how realistic your drawing is by using each step as a
checklist. This analysis should be done at each step. Make visual comparisons between the
drawing and the subject. It will help keep your work accurate and on track. The systematic
approach works together with the next characteristic - practice.
b. The systematic approach is the most efficient method for learning to draw. Practice
each step in order and do them accurately.
Practice is the process of improving on a task through repetition. As you complete a
drawing, you can compare it to the subject for accuracy. If it is not correct, you can determine
why by going through the steps of the systematic approach. You must do every step correctly
and in sequence (form, proportion, contour and shading) to make the drawing as accurate as