(2) The primary intent of countermobility operations is to attack the enemy's ability to
execute his plan by disrupting his combat formations, interfering with his command and control, and
confusing his commanders. This is accomplished with an integrated system of obstacles and fires.
Obstacles are planned to disrupt, turn, or block enemy movement in support of close, deep, and rear
operations. Countermobility operations in support of offensive deep operations focus on enemy division
reserves and enemy units in the second and third defensive positions. In support of the defense close
operations, countermobility operations are directed against first and second-echelon regiments of first-
echelon divisions. Countermobility operations against second-echelon regiments of first-echelon
divisions and regimental-sized elements of second-echelon divisions are conducted in support of deep
(3) Slowing enemy movement creates opportunities that other combat systems can exploit.
Maneuver commanders must ensure that obstacles support their intent, mission, and scheme of
maneuver, but do not degrade their friendly mobility. Well planned counter-mobility operations are
combat multipliers that enhance the effects of friendly direct and indirect fires. Obstacles provide
maneuver commanders critical time and space (depth) that can be exploited by fire and maneuver.
Figure 3-4, page 3-7, shows an M9 armored combat earthmover, which is used in constructing obstacles.
(4) Survivability operations consist primarily of preparing fighting and protective positions
that allow the division to survive to fight again and again. The division engineer battalion has a primary
role in mobility, countermobility and survivability operations.
c. Fire support.
(1) The fire support BOS can assist in target acquisition and engagement of nuclear,
biological, and chemical (NBC) targets. However, fire support will also be targeted by the enemy. The
capability of fire support is inpeded in an NBC environment.
(2) Division fire support systems
consist of artillery, Air Force, mortars, nonlethal
EW, and naval gunfire and aviation (when
available). The division fire support plan is
integrated into the scheme of maneuver
consistent with the division commander's intent.
To achieve this, the commander and his staff,
with the advice and expertise of the division fire
support coordinator (FSCOORD), must think in
terms of the total systems available. The
commander must allocate fire support systems
Figure 3-5. Fire support
to support his maneuver elements and to
preserve his freedom of maneuver by fighting
deep, close, and rear operations. He must provide for an overwhelming counterfire effort. The
FSCOORD recommends an allocation of systems and organizations in accordance with METT-T that
provide the commander the needed flexibility and capability to rapidly shift fires and to reposition firing