1. Need for Battlefield Automation.
a. Threat. The large Russian military remains a formidable power, and numerous Third World
nations may pose a threat to world stability and U.S. interests. International drug trafficking and
terrorist groups are two examples of unconventional warfare with which the U.S. must deal.
b. Manpower limitations. Manpower reduction, putting more combat arms soldiers and fewer
combat support/service support soldiers on the battlefield, translates into less signal support using
formerly manual communication techniques. Increased automation reduces the number of signal
personnel needed while enhancing the signal support principles of continuity, security, versatility, and
c. Weapons systems capability. Modem weapons systems are themselves computer-assisted
and can outperform manual C2 systems. C2 systems must be automated to realize the full potential of
automated weapons systems.
2. Command, Control, Subordinate Systems (C2S2) Architecture. C2S2 views the battlefield as a set of
separate yet interrelated areas termed battlefield functional areas (BFA). They are: maneuver, fire
support, air defense, intelligence and electronic warfare, and combat service support.
3. Army Command and Control Master Plan.
a. The C2S2 architectural concept establishes the basis for automation and communication
which comprise an interoperable and survivable tactical command and control system in all battlefield
b. The purpose of this is to provide timely, accurate, and reliable information to and from
force commander and his staff, and BFA commanders and their staffs. This results in both
generation of information needed by the force commander and staff for decision making and
dissemination of the force commander's guidance and directives for actions which influence
battlefield environment. The command and control system also contains the means for achieving
required information flow between mutually-supporting command and control nodes, particularly
force commander, his staff, and the constituents of the force.