PART A - ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Historically, the services have varied in their EW philosophy. Army and Marine ground
elements targeted their EW assets primarily against enemy signal systems. Air Force, Navy, and Marine
aviation oriented toward defense suppression and self-protection functions. They usually relate to
noncommunications systems. Joint operations plans often did not cohesively integrate service-unique
abilities and goals.
Joint warfare is key to victory in the modern world. Interoperability is essential if EW is
to be an effective element of combat capability. However, for interoperability to occur, we need to
know the basic organization and command relationships during joint and combined operations.
National command authorities.
The National Security Act of 1947, as amended by Title 10, US Code Section 164, and
Department of Defense (DOD) Directive 5100.1, delineates the responsibilities of the Secretary of
Defense (SECDEF), the military departments, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It provides the basis for
unified and specified commands.
The national command authorities (NCA) are the President and SECDEF together, or
their duly deputized alternates or successor. NCA signifies constitutional authority to direct the Armed
Forces in the movement of troops and the execution of military action. By law, no one else in the chain
command has the authority to take such action.
Joint warfare of the US Forces.
Joint Publication 1, Joint Warfare of the US Armed Forces, guides the joint actions of the
armed forces. Since our military has often fought as part of alliances and coalitions, Joint Publication 1
also guides our multinational endeavors.
Modern warfare demands that we fight as a team. This does not mean that all services
are equally represented in all operations. A joint force commander (JFC) chooses the capabilities he
needs from available air, land, sea, and space forces. The resulting team provides the ability to apply
overwhelming force from different dimensions and directions to shock, disrupt, and defeat opponents.
Effectively integrated joint forces expose no weak points or seams to enemy action. They also rapidly
and efficiently find and attack enemy weak areas.
c. The primary emphasis in command relations is to keep the chain of command short and
simple so it is clear who is in charge of what. Concise orders, with the commander's intent clearly
articulated, are the best basis for effective communication between joint force elements. C3 systems
should be reliable, survivable, flexible, interoperable, timely, and secure.