electromagnetic energy with the object of degrading the effectiveness of electronic devices,
equipment, or systems being used by a hostile force.
ELECTRONIC DECEPTION - The deliberate radiation, reradiation, alteration,
absorption, enhancement, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner intended to
mislead hostile forces in the interpretation or use of information received by their electronic
Electronic deception is divided into three parts: simulative electronic deception
(SED), manipulative electronic deception (MED), and imitative electronic deception (IED).
SIMULATIVE ELECTRONIC DECEPTION (SED) - The creation of
electromagnetic emissions to represent friendly notional or actual capabilities to mislead hostile
MANIPULATIVE ELECTRONIC DECEPTION (MED) - The alteration of friendly
electromagnetic emission characteristics, patterns, or procedures to eliminate revealing, or
convey misleading, telltale indicators that may be used by hostile forces.
IMITATIVE ELECTRONIC DECEPTION (IED) - The introduction of radiations
into unfriendly channels that imitate hostile emissions.
involving actions taken to retain effective friendly use of the electromagnetic spectrum.
ECCM is divided into two parts: anti-ESM which involves emission control and
avoidance; and anti-ECM which involves system design, system deployment, frequency control,
and operator training.
1-1. The subject of this program is the part of EW involving actions taken to prevent or reduce
the effectiveness of an enemy's equipment in transmitting or receiving signals. This is referred
to as ECM.
As a radio operator you must be aware of the enemy's attempts to ______________ or
______________ the effective use of your radio transmitter or receiver.
(1-1. Answer: prevent, reduce)