1-27. Jamming produced by three to five audio tones transmitted in an increasing and then
decreasing pitch repeated over and over again is known as stepped tones. This sound resembles
that made by Scottish bagpipes.
Thus, stepped-tone jamming signals can be identified by an interference resembling
(1-27. Answer: bagpipes)
1-28. Although stepped-tone jamming is easier to read through than the masking type of
jamming, it is still effective because the constant, monotonous repetition of notes irritates and
tires the operator.
The type of jamming that sounds like bagpipes and is annoying to the operator even
though it may be read through is the ___________-___________ jamming signal.
(1-28. Answer: stepped-tone)
PART E - CONTINUOUS-WAVE (CW) JAMMING
There are several forms of CW jamming.
Random-keyed CW jamming is produced by an unmodulated carrier keyed at
Keyed CW jamming is similar to random-keyed CW jamming except that actual
Morse code characters are transmitted at the same, or faster, rate than the signal being jammed.
Random-keyed modulated CW jamming is produced by keying a CW signal at
random and modulating this keyed signal with spark noise.