The bleach step is performed immediately after the
development step. Its function is to convert the black metallic image back
to a silver halide state, which prepares it to be removed by the fixer step.
This wash step in running water serves to remove residual
bleach from the film. It also prevents contamination of the fixer, which is
the following step.
The fixer converts the silver halides in the emulsions to
soluble silver salts and is similar in action to fixer used for black and
e. Wash. This second and final wash removes all processing by-products
from the film.
f. Stabilizer. The stabilizer performs two functions; it sets the dyes
to ensure permanency, and it contains a wetting agent which promotes spot-
Film may be either power or air-dried.
Mixing C-41 Chemicals.
The C-41 chemical kit contains four solutions: developer, bleach, fixer, and
The temperature of the solvent (water) will vary with each
However, this is indicated on the manufacturer's instructions
along with the safety precautions.
Always read the manufacturer's
instructions because manufacturers update these instructions whenever a
slight change is made in the manufacturing of the chemicals.
Job safety is an important element of any task and cannot be overlooked.
Carefully read and comply with all the warnings and precautions cited by the
manufacturer in regards to the handling and use of color-processing
solutions. Developing solutions for color materials are usually much more
caustic than solutions used in black and white work.
A major problem is
their potential to cause skin irritation if mishandled or if protective
clothing is not worn.
a. Protect yourself by wearing the required clothing, such as an apron
or smock and rubber gloves. Wear a respirator over your nose and mouth to
prevent the ingestion of chemical dust and fumes during mixing operations.
b. Ensure adequate ventilation of the mixing area before you
begin to mix color chemistry.
The formaldehyde contained in the
stabilizer is a known skin and eye irritant.