SODIUM HYDROXIDE (Caustic Soda; Lye)
White deliquescent pieces--lumps or sticks. DANGEROUS. Handle with care--it destroys
organic tissues. COMBUSTIBLE. It heats spontaneously in contact with moisture and air, and
may ignite nearby combustible materials. CAUTION: VERY CORROSIVE.
Always use COLD water to dissolve sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) and stir solution constantly
while mixing to dissipate evolved heat that could crack glass containers and cause splattering and
Antidote, external--Flood with water immediately, then wash with vinegar or dilute acetic acid
(stop bath). For affected eyes, irrigate with warm water, then wash out with 5% boric acid
Antidote, internal--Give vinegar or copious amounts of juice of lemon, grapefruit, or orange.
Follow with olive oil.
Yellow or brick-red lumps or flakes. DANGEROUS FIRE HAZARD. In heat or acid fumes, it
evolves highly TOXIC hydrogen sulfide; when it burns in air or oxygen, it liberates sulfur
Antidote, external--Remove affected personnel to fresh air; if eyes are affected, irrigate with
copious amounts of warm water.
Kodak color prehardening agent HA-1 found in E-4, EA-4, EA-5, ME4, ME-5 color prehardener.
An ASPHIXIATING chemical.
White or colorless nonhygroscopic crystals; stable when dry--Slowly hydrolizes in solution,
forming ammonium bisulfate. TOXIC. Harmful to unprotected eyes.