(a) Medium opaqueness is determined by the pigment content. The more
pigment in the medium, the more opaque it will be. Examples of opaque paints are tempera,
gouache, and acrylic.
(b) Though acrylic paints are classified as an opaque medium, they may need
more than one coat to achieve the opaque effect.
Media have differing characteristics and uses due to their element makeup.
elements are pigment, binder, and vehicle (sometimes called carrier).
a. Pigment is the colored matter which produces the image from the medium. Pigments
can be either man-made or a product of nature. Ground pigment is added to the other elements
b. Binder is the glue that holds the elements together. Some binders hold the elements
together in sticks (chalk, crayon, pastels), others hold the medium to the image surface.
c. Vehicle (sometimes called the carrier) is the liquid which suspends the pigments and
Mixed media is the combination of more than one media in an illustration.
pleasing combinations are watercolors, tempera paints, or acrylics, with ink contours.
Learning Event 2
Techniques are the way you use or apply various media to the drawing surface. This
application creates illusions of edges, depth, movement, and texture.
Line techniques create the illusion of tones and shading with black and white only. Line
techniques effectively use lines, dots, or circles to create the illusion of tone (fig 3-4).
a. Single line technique creates the illusion of value variations through line weight, the
number of lines, and their proximity. Single line weight is uniform throughout its length. You
can achieve the total range of values using pencil, pen and ink, or brush and ink. Apply single
line in one of four methods: mechanical, freehand, form following, and diagonal or repeating
pattern (figs 3-5 through 3-8).