Figure 3-8. Series of short, single line applications
(4) Patterns of a series of short single line applications are a very effective shading
technique (fig 3-8). The patterns can be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal, with repeating
applications to each. There is no set pattern to follow as long as value is controlled. Simply
stated, copy the dark and light areas.
b. Graded line has varied thickness within its length. This variation helps to create the
illusion of shade and shadow while creating the illusion of depth. The most well known
examples of this technique are comic books and cartoon-style posters.
c. Crosshatch shading technique uses two or more series of overlapping parallel lines.
Each cross in different directions. This technique uses the same principles as the single line with
each series crossing another to create a darker value area (fig 3-9).
d. Stipple (confused with pointilism) uses a series of irregularly spaced dots (usually ink)
that control light and dark (fig 3-10). The closer the dots, the darker your image area. A fine-
tipped technical fountain pen (00) is most useful for application of this technique. Application
consists of touching the pen to the paper vertically and sporadically. Do not apply stipple on-the-
move or dashes will appear instead of dots. Stipple technique is time consuming but pleasing to
the eye. Practice will help you refine this technique.