(3) Location operations help planners to identify likely or
possible enemy intentions.
The data gathered can indicate if an
enemy is in an offensive, defensive, or retrograde posture. The size
of the area an enemy is occupying is a factor in determining the
enemy unit's type and size.
airborne and ground-based sensors to locate enemy positions through
DF of electronic emissions.
The location and movement of enemy
forces tells the commander and his staff what the enemy is doing or
preparing to do.
In addition to situation development, location
intelligence is also used in planning the targeting of enemy
b. ECM is offensive action taken to prevent or reduce an enemy's
effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum.
operations can degrade an enemy's combat effectiveness by degrading
his electromagnetic operations.
ECM, a staff responsibility of the
G3, includes both electronic jamming and deception.
(1) Electronic jamming reduces or denies an enemy the effective
use of his electronic equipment. Jamming can assist the ESM team by
forcing an enemy to transmit in the clear and for longer periods. As
a result, the ESM team can gather pertinent information about the
enemy (intentions, location, size, etc.), which may assist the
commander and his staff in preparing operational plans.
chaos, disrupts combat operations, and reduces combat effectiveness.
(2) Electronic deception is used to cause an enemy to
misinterpret what his electronic collection systems receive.
usually conducted as part of a larger deception operation.