a. The use of EW followed the development of radio. As nations
improved their intelligence gathering systems, they also introduced
Codes and ciphers were developed.
changing of call signs and frequencies became a daily part of
practices became a sophisticated practice.
EW has been used
extensively since World War II.
b. EW contributes much to C3CM.
There are three components of
Interception operations provide EW planners with
intelligence about the enemy's location, activity, possible future
operations, and electronic disruption capabilities.
operations help planners to identify likely and possible enemy
intentions. ESM identification operations help to identify the size,
type, echelon, and function of enemy units.
These offensive actions are taken to prevent or
reduce an enemy's effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum.
his electronic equipment.
to deceive an enemy through his electronic systems.
(3) ECCM. These are defensive passive measures used to protect
friendly (C3) systems from enemy EW activities. ECCM and SIGSEC are
(a) Anti-ESM are actions taken to deny the enemy access to
(b) Anti-ECM are used against jamming.
Anti-ECM cannot be
used against deception or ESM.