(a) An example is terrain masking, where a friendly radio station
is placed so a hill is between it and the enemy.
(b) Another example is avoidance by using a directional antenna.
(2) Anti-ECM are used against jamming. They cannot be used against
deception or ESM. This involves actions taken after learning the enemy is
using EW against friendly forces. Effective anti-ECM methods are:
(c) Reporting incidents of ECM so the jammer can be located and
(d) Using techniques to overcome ECM.
Improve the signal-to-jamming ratio by adjusting
antenna, and setting up a retransmission capability.
(e) Changing frequencies.
This is done as a last resort.