(1) There are two reasons to pan. The first is to cover large areas of
terrain or nature (the word pan comes from panorama). The second reason to pan
is to follow action.
(2) Sometimes it is necessary to get a bird's-eye-view of the action.
When following action, a pan is effective. The cameraman could zoom out and
follow with a long shot, but that would not be as effective, since television
is a closeup medium.
Closeup shots are effective for television since the
screen is so small.
b. A tilt is a vertical movement of the camera head, up or down (fig 3-3).
It is used to follow vertical action, such as a man standing up or sitting
down. A cameraman may tilt from head to foot of a stunning model to show the
outfit she is wearing. Proper speed in tilting is important. If the camera
tilts while the talent is standing up, the talent's-head will vanish too soon.
Both a pan and tilt are used to redirect the viewer's attention.
(1) Except when following action it is best not to pan or tilt. It is
generally better to avoid panning or tilting a static object. If the object is
too large to be entirely included in the viewfinder, zoom to a wide angle shot
(fig 3-4) or back up to a greater subject distance. When it is necessary to
pan or tilt the camera over a static or stationary subject, move the camera
slowly. Otherwise, the motion will appear rough and fast on the TV screen.
Using a zoom lens
(2) When panning or tilting, a long-recognized technique is to begin and
with the camera stationary. Stop the camera movement at the completion of
pan or tilt, and end the scene with the camera motionless. Do not follow
panned (tilted) scene with another. Follow shots are acceptable, panning
be covered up by having someone walk through the scene and follow.
c. A dolly is a camera movement toward the talent or away from the talent
(fig 3-5). To dolly in, the cameraman moves in; to dolly out, the cameraman
moves away, in a vertical line, from the action or talent.
d. A truck is a lateral movement of the entire camera, to the right or to
the left (fig 3-6).