b. In the processing of prints, it is necessary to use trays that are
larger than the prints and deep enough to hold ample solution. If possible,
the trays used for the stop bath and fixer should be somewhat larger than
the developer tray (fig 1-6).
Many times the developer tray will have a
raised "X" on the bottom to distinguish it from the stop bath and fixer.
Set the trays up so that you have the developer on your left, followed by
the stop bath, and fixer trays. Standardizing the tray set-up will minimize
the risk of others in the lab from using the wrong tray when they process
the prints. Proceed as follows in processing a single print:
(1) Slip the exposed print into the developer, emulsion side down.
(2) Ensure the entire print is immersed into the solution and that no
air bubbles cling to the surface. Turn the print emulsion up.
(3) Agitate the paper as development gets under way and watch the
appearance of the image. A normal print should develop gradually - shadows
first, then half tones, and finally highlights. Development times will vary
depending on the type of paper and developer being used.
If the image
appears quickly with a general mottling, the print was overexposed.
(4) The average print development time ranges from 1 1/2 to 2
minutes. Your chemical solution should be 70 to 74 degrees F to yield the
(5) Once the desired contrast has been reached in your print, within
the recommended time, you have to stop development.
This is done by
removing the print from the developer and transferring it to the stop bath.
Be sure to drain the print of excess developer solution. Do this by holding
the print (with tongs) by one corner for about 15 seconds over the developer
(6) The stop bath stops any further development by neutralizing the
developer. Use continuous agitation in the stop bath.
(7) When stop bath time is completed, (1 minute), drain the print for
15 seconds and transfer it to the fixer. The fixing time for paper ranges
from 5 to 10 minutes.
Use constant agitation the first minute and once
every minute thereafter until the fixing time is up. Then remove the print
from the fixer, drain it, and place it in the wash.
(a) Double fixing bath. In the mass production of prints, it is
generally advisable to use two fixing baths.