proportional to each other. Proportion has two qualities: size and location.
a. Size is the first quality. The object appears large when it is seen closer while that
same object at a distance appears small. In order to draw a subject realistically, draw objects as
they appear proportionally.
b. The second quality is location. The illustrator may draw an exact copy of the object,
but it must be located correctly to give the drawing an accurate appearance.
Proportion requires the illustrator to measure and compare an object's proportions within
the subject area. Train to see two-dimensionally. You must disregard the third dimension,
depth, and draw what you see. Some freehand artist/illustrators can do this very quickly,
seemingly with great ease. Practice drawing using these measuring techniques: grid, subject
rectangle, and plumb.
a. The grid is a series of equally-spaced, horizontal and vertical, parallel lines which form
squares (fig 2-13). Use the grid as a guide in sketching the subject's forms in proportion. Plot
points of intersection on the grid much like you would do on a map. A step-by-step explanation
(1) Draw a series of grid lines over drawing number 1 (app A-2). To avoid damaging
the illustration (or photograph), use an acetate overlay and grease pencil to set up the grid.
When the latter method is used, tape the grid to the photo for a constant reference. For this
exercise, use one-inch squares (sample, app A-3). Adjust the squares accordingly for larger or
smaller photos. Make the drawing twice the size, for example, 1-inch by 1-inch original to a 2-
inch by 2-inch drawing.
NOTE: There is a grid with 1/2-inch squares to use with more detailed photographic
subjects (sample, app A-4).
(2) Draw a separate grid on a piece of paper (fig 2-13). Draw this grid proportionate
to the desired size the copied illustration will be. For instance, make one-inch squares for the
original and two-inch squares for the art. Draw grid lines lightly as they will need to be erased
later. Enlarging or reducing can be done as required using this technique. Many mural artists
use this method to simplify great enlargements of their illustrations.
(3) Next, number on one side and letter the grid on the top or bottom (fig 2-13).
This helps to transfer images correctly from one area to another.