(4) Now, copy the illustration (or photo), grid square by grid square until all lines are
finished. Lightly draw lines to allow easy corrections. Also, erase the grid lines before going on
to later stages of the basic procedure.
b. The rectangle method is the best and simplest for free-hand drawing of proportions.
It breaks the subject into a series proportionate rectangular measurements. These rectangles
establish the proper height and width of the objects within the subject area. It enables
transferring measurements more easily from the source to the drawing surface. Pay close
attention to any angular measurements or references in the subject. A step-by-step explanation
(1) Establish the overall height and width of the subject by drawing a rectangle on
the illustration or photograph. Use drawing No. 2 (app A-5) for this exercise. Again use acetate
and a grease pencil to keep the photo intact. This rectangle should touch the highest, lowest,
extreme left, and extreme right of the subject (fig 2-14). Now the subject rectangle is
(2) Next, construct rectangles around all major objects within the subject rectangle
(fig 2-14). These "object rectangles" show the overall height, width, and location of the objects
within the subject area.
(3) Transfer the subject and object rectangles to the drawing (fig 2-14). This can be
done freehand, but a ruler or straightedge helps when drawing straight lines. Transfer the
measurements from the photo to a drawing surface the same proportionate size for this drawing.
Enlarge or reduce the drawing at this stage, as desired.
(4) Using rectangles and angles as a reference, lightly sketch in the linework (fig 2-
14). Erase the unnecessary lines on the drawing surface as the final step. As you become more
proficient, you will be able to draw visually without much measuring.
c. The plumb method is the most widely used method for gathering proportional
measurements in freehand drawings. This method is also superior when drawing from life. A
plumb is any object that is longer than it is wide, having a straight edge. Examples are a pencil,
paint brush, or strip of wood. The plumb method involves using the tool for comparing and
transferring measurements; either exact or proportional. A description of how this is done