(1) From a consistent spot, hold the plumb (pencil) in your hand. Lock your elbow.
Tilt the plumb neither forward nor backward, and keep the point up.
(a) For measuring, look at the subject with only one eye and place the tip of the
plumb at one end of an object. Move your thumb until it reaches the object's other end.
Compare this proportional measurement to other proportional measurements within the subject.
You have now taken a proportional measurement of objects within the subject.
(b) Transfer this proportional measurement to the drawing surface. Continue
until contents of the subject rectangle are complete. Repeat this process for the most important
objects in the subject rectangle. Next, break it down into its angles.
(2) There are two ways to draw and measure angles. The first is to tilt the plumb to
the left or right, matching the angle you see and reproducing it visually on the drawing. The
second way requires you to measure two coordinates: height and width (fig 2-15).
(3) Once you have transferred the object rectangles and angles to the drawing surface,
lightly sketch in the line work. Again, erase excess lines as the final step.