environment. The tents of ALB were fully applied during this war and the Army acquired a gold mine
of lessons learned. The following examples describe the application of ALB tenets during Desert Storm.
(1) The initial response of U.S. Armed Forces in the Persian Gulf was to deter, and if
necessary, repel further Iraqi aggression after the Invasion of Kuwait. Iraq lost the tactical advantage as
the buildup of U.S. personnel and armaments continued. The Iraqi army went on the defense in
response to the aggressive initiative of U.S. forces.
(2) During the air campaign, prior to ground action, a relentless bombing of targets within
Iraq produced the desired shock effect. The bombing missions were characterized by concentration,
accuracy, and violence.
(3) The ground campaign reflected initiative when the main effort shifted to the West and
then pushed north Into Iraq. The combined arms effort was directed against enemy maneuver forces and
command and control centers. With its command and control structure destroyed and the combat units
decimated, the enemy lost track of events, its will to fight was broken, and it was defeated.
b. Agility. During Desert Storm, the agility of U.S. armed forces allowed it to seize and hold
the initiative. Tens of thousands of air sorties were flown against Iraqi missile sites; command and
control centers; telecommunication facilities; power generating plants; airfields and runways; aircraft
storage shelters; chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons development and production facilities;
bridges; and troop positions. This relentless assault overwhelmed the enemy and shattered his ability to
respond in a coordinated manner.
c. Depth. Iraq expected a frontal attack against its heavily fortified defenses along the Kuwaiti
coastline and the Saudi-Kuwaiti border. Through depth, U.S. ground commanders were able to
maneuver with the necessary space to attack the Iraqi army's western flank. The 101st Airborne
Division (Air Assault) airlifted over 70 miles into Iraq to set up forward refueling and resupply bases.
These logistic bases sustained the maneuver and fire units as they swept over 100 miles into Iraq before
turning east toward Basra. Enemy forces were fixed in place and Iraq's logistics lifeline was severed.
Figure 1-1 illustrates the degree of depth achieved.